Kaarel is a member of the PaleoMIX team at the University of Tartu. He is a multidisciplinary researcher working on archaeological and historical material in combination with environmental data and various theoretical frameworks. His interests include formal modelling of long-term processes, complex systems, human-environment interactions, quantitative geography, settlement systems, epistemology of digital humanities and archaeological data science. He carried out his doctoral research in the University of Luxembourg working on theoretical modelling of settlement systems as complex adaptive systems. In the PaleoMIX project he is working on archaeological data workflows.